Service Delivery

Enhancing the delivery of education services in crisis and conflict-affected contexts leads to measurable improvements in foundational learning outcomes for children and youth: literacy, numeracy, and social-emotional skills. The way education services are delivered also contributes to increasing social cohesion, stabilizing systems, and building individual and community resilience. Education services should be provided in a safe, supportive environment that is responsive to the needs of crisis-affected youth, with a strong focus on livelihoods and community in addition to education. Elements of service delivery include school location, management, curriculum and materials, the use of appropriate technology, and conflict-sensitive teaching and pedagogy.


According to the 2018 USAID Education Policy, inclusive education focuses on the full and effective participation, accessibility, attendance, and achievement of all students, especially those who, for different reasons, are excluded or at risk of being marginalized. In crisis and conflict-affected contexts, poverty, geography, gender, displacement status, and disability play extremely important dimensions of equity that affect educational access, completion, and learning. Increasing equity requires designing programs with the most marginalized students in mind. The degree of equity in the provision of education within a country influences whether education contributes to conflict or to social cohesion and peace.


Children and youth in crisis and conflict-affected settings require safety and protection to enable learning. Increasing the safety of education services requires addressing internal, external, and environmental threats to students, teachers, and school communities. The provision of a safe learning environment requires deep knowledge of the context in which threats exist. To increase safety and protection from attack, education systems and schools can establish early warning systems, and when necessary, alternative learning spaces and distance learning options.

Institutional Capacity Development

The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development defines capacity as "the ability of people, organizations, and society as a whole to manage their affairs successfully." USAID aims to strengthen the capacity of education institutions at all levels of the education system in crisis and conflict-affected environments. Strengthening capacity allows institutions to sustainably deliver safe, quality, and relevant education services to all children and youth and improve their learning outcomes. USAID investments support, facilitate, and catalyze capacity development or related processes for committed institutions, including government institutions, non-governmental and civil society organizations, and schools and communities.

Context Analysis

Before applying any resource to a particular operating environment, it is essential to perform a context assessment that identifies the characteristics, opportunities, and risks present in that environment. It is equally important to perform periodic follow-up context assessments because crisis and conflict-affected environments are complex, and critical operating assumptions, conditions, and elements are subject to sudden change. Ongoing context analysis is essential for ensuring that education programming is appropriate, effective and conflict sensitive.