Conflict Analysis Summary: Burundi
This report summarizes findings from two studiesundertaken as part of the UNICEF Peacebuilding, Education and Advocacy (PBEA) programme, funded by the Government of the Netherlands. The UNICEF Burundi Country Office has integrated conflict analysis into its research strategy, and the purpose of these initial studies is to examine (a) the inter-generational transmission of violence and the connection between the macro- and microdynamics of violence, and (b) the effects of conflict and violence on children and adolescents. The report includes recommendations from the research, covering ways to support peacebuilding and education programming in Burundi in order to help consolidate peace and avoid relapse into violent conflict.
The studies conducted for the conflict analysis had distinct methodologies. One reviewed existing research concerning the country's political economy, conflict cycles and children's exposure to violence, using both classic and life-cycle approaches to conflict analysis. The other study was based on informant interviews, including more than 200 local stakeholders as well as international experts. The researcher spoke with individuals in the rural areas of Gitega Province, primarily in the Bugendana commune, and in Makamba Province; interviews were also conducted in the capital city of Bujumbura, including in the neighborhood of Bwiza, which was a centre of civil war violence and where violence continues to the present. Interviews were also held with government representatives at the colline (subdivision), commune, provincial and national levels, and from United Nations agencies, and national and international non-governmental organizations.
Conflict and violence in Burundi has had a number of impacts on the education system. The killing of educated civilians during the wars contributed to a lack of experienced and educated people in government and the civil service. Displacement of civilians resulted in the disruption of education for many children and youth. Because the normalization of violence within the school and home obstructs children's cognitive, emotional, psychosocial and moral development, they in turn are more likely to perpetuate violence in their own lives and in the lives of their families when they become adults. Peacebuilding entry points in education and learning:
- Actively demonstrate and promote inclusion;
- Improve education quality;
- Improve child protection;
- Vocational training;
- Address hunger and malnutrition;
- Strengthen evidence building and collaboration;
- Facilitate community dialogue on social challenges; and
- Address sexual violence.