Education in Conflict and Crisis: How Can Technology Make a Difference?
A Landscape Review
The aim of this landscape review is to identify major trends, patterns, and lessons learned about the use of mobile technologies in crisis and conflict settings, and also to define gaps in our existing knowledge base. This landscape review has been prepared as a desk review of research papers and reports related to the field of ICT for education in conflict and crisis.
Areas of study explored for this desk review include: education in emergencies; forced migration studies; refugee education; ICT for education in development; conflict and crisis studies; and pedagogy and technology. To supplement some of the gaps in the existing literature, and to ensure that the experiences of practitioners were reflected, 15 interviews were conducted with professionals working in education, non-profit, and non-governmental sectors. Finally, at the outset of writing this report, the Inter-Agency Network for Education in Emergencies (INEE) and World Vision International had distributed a survey to practitioners working in ICT for education in emergencies.
This Landscape Review shows that the majority of projects operate in post-conflict settings and focus on long-term development. The identified projects support education in different ways: they operate in the field of education system strengthening, teacher training, vocational training and tertiary education, and formal and non-formal education for children and youth. ICT also play a role in informal learning through digital and social media. Recommendations include:
- Focus on Efficient Technology Usage, Local Maintenance, and Local Procurement;
- Have Clarity in The Purpose and Context of ICT Use;
- Consider "System Strengthening" Initiatives;
- Attend to the Needs of Inclusive Education;
- Consider Do No Harm and Conflict-Sensitive Education;
- Identify Accreditation and Certification Mechanisms;
- Acknowledge the “Claims vs. Evidence” Gap and Compile Resources;
- Create Cross-Sectoral Collaboration; and
- Explore Informal Learning Structures.