Identification and Impact of Abuse
We distinguish between a school protection model in which children are protected from abuse, and a welfare model, in which their equal opportunities are promoted. Focusing on the former, we attempt to identify situations of adversity in which abuse is likely to happen. To do this, it is necessary to understand various forms of abuse, including emotional/psychological child maltreatment, physical abuse, and bullying. In addition, it is necessary to identify school practices that could lead to resilience and child welfare.
Multiple forms of child abuse and neglect often coexist, and it is important that teachers are trained to identify warning signals of abuse or neglect, and are able to act on them. Also, the teacher should learn how to use non-corporal disciplining methods for the classroom: it is important to train him or her to become empathic, to understand the plight of the most vulnerable children. Definitions of abuse, we argue, and its physical and psychosocial lifespan effects may in many cases have global relevance, albeit it may be difficult to operationalize child protection based on all of them. For example, in extreme poverty situations, rather than indicating a problematic relationship between parents and children, the situation of "neglect" may be a result of poverty and thus of systemic violence, which may be leading to adverse health effects and other problems. Such cycle of intergenerational poverty and systemic violence may possibly be broken by education.