According to the 2018 USAID Education Policy, inclusive education focuses on the full and effective participation, accessibility, attendance, and achievement of all students, especially those who, for different reasons, are excluded or at risk of being marginalized. In crisis and conflict-affected contexts, poverty, geography, gender, displacement status, and disability play extremely important dimensions of equity that affect educational access, completion, and learning. Inclusive education services mean that instruction is provided in languages that teachers and learners understand, accelerated education options are in place, bias and stereotypes are removed from curriculum, textbooks, and instructional practices, and affordable non-state schools serve marginalized populations.
Poor rural girls are among the most disadvantaged in terms of educational outcomes, and large proportions of children and youth with disabilities, as well as religious and ethnic minorities, lack access to quality basic education in many developing countries. Increasing equity requires designing programs with the most marginalized students in mind. The degree of equity in the provision of education within a country influences whether education contributes to conflict or to social cohesion and peace.